What what in the robot

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The Robot in the Next Cubicle: What You Need to Know to Adapt and Succeed in the Automation Age (English Edition) eBook: Boyer, Larry: nastafest2018.se This classic science fiction masterwork by Isaac Asimov weaves stories about robots, humanity, and the deep questions of existence into a novel of shocking. Buy Science and Game Technologic Mio, The Robot (Clementoni ), Spanish Version: Remote- & App-Controlled Figures & Robots - nastafest2018.se Revolution in the underground car park - Volkswagen lets its charging robots loose. Volkswagen Group Components provides a glimpse into. Few EU citizens have experience with using robots: in total, 12% of EU citizens have used or are currently using a robot: six percent have experience with the use.

What what in the robot

Our socio-technological project, engineers developed a robotic wheelchair with attaching a robot in order to provide embodied projective signals to human and. The Robot in the Next Cubicle: What You Need to Know to Adapt and Succeed in the Automation Age (English Edition) eBook: Boyer, Larry: nastafest2018.se There aren't any people working there at all, just hundreds of robots. Da gibt's keine There is a distinct difference between an android and a robot. Zwischen​. Underwater robot with a sense of touch. Maintenance of offshore drilling rigs or underwater cables, taking samples of sediment – underwater robots perform a. Our socio-technological project, engineers developed a robotic wheelchair with attaching a robot in order to provide embodied projective signals to human and. Request PDF | Evaluating the Child–Robot Interaction of the NAOTherapist Platform in Pediatric Rehabilitation | NAOTherapist is a cognitive robotic architecture. Es wurden what what in the robot GRATIS-Videos auf XVIDEOS bei dieser Suche gefunden. There aren't any people working there at all, just hundreds of robots. Da gibt's keine There is a distinct difference between an android and a robot. Zwischen​. Sie werden mir helfen rauszufinden, was mit diesen Robotern Relity kings stimmt. Alina Belle wanna be your slut stepdaddy. Castle in the Sky War of the Coprophages Robots designed by Dragonball hentai, right? Ordinary People

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What three basic things would we need? We would need a microphone sound sensor so that the robot could hear the music. We would need some actuators like motors with wheels so that the robot could move.

The video above shows a simple robot that has been programmed to dance autonomously when it hears music.

Check out those dance moves! Some robots are more advanced than our little dancing robot. Autonomous cars, for example, have advanced sensors that allow them to measure the distance to all objects in their environment and build a 3-dimensional 3-D map of the area.

They then have an advanced program that understands the meaning of the cars, roads, and obstacle s in the 3D map. Other robots are being designed to help at home, explore space, or improve our efficiency at work.

Whatever their purpose, each robot will need a carefully thought-out set of sensors, actuators, and programs.

How can they interact with humans in a natural way? How do they adapt to the real world, which is often full of unexpected events that are hard for machines to understand?

These are the kinds of questions that robotics experts are working hard to solve. Robots come in many different shapes and sizes. Whether they look like us or not, most robots have three essential ingredients that make them a robot.

Together, these ingredients are what make a robot different from other machines and electronic gadgets you might have around your house. Photograph courtesy National Geographic Entertainment.

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Interactives Any interactives on this page can only be played while you are visiting our website. Related Resources. In the mids Rodney Brooks of the MIT AI lab used this impasse to launch a highly visible new movement that rejected the effort to have machines create internal models of their surroundings.

Instead, Brooks and his followers wrote computer programs with simple subprograms that connected sensor inputs to motor outputs, each subprogram encoding a behaviour such as avoiding a sensed obstacle or heading toward a detected goal.

There is evidence that many insects function largely this way, as do parts of larger nervous systems.

The approach resulted in some very engaging insectlike robots, but—as with real insects—their behaviour was erratic, as their sensors were momentarily misled, and the approach proved unsuitable for larger robots.

Meanwhile, other researchers continue to pursue various techniques to enable robots to perceive their surroundings and track their own movements.

One prominent example involves semiautonomous mobile robots for exploration of the Martian surface. A particularly interesting testing ground for fully autonomous mobile robot research is football soccer.

In an international community of researchers organized a long-term program to develop robots capable of playing this sport, with progress tested in annual machine tournaments.

The first RoboCup games were held in in Nagoya, Japan , with teams entered in three competition categories: computer simulation , small robots, and midsize robots.

Merely finding and pushing the ball was a major accomplishment, but the event encouraged participants to share research, and play improved dramatically in subsequent years.

In Sony began providing researchers with programmable AIBOs for a new competition category; this gave teams a standard reliable prebuilt hardware platform for software experimentation.

While robot football has helped to coordinate and focus research in some specialized skills, research involving broader abilities is fragmented.

Mark E. Rosheim summarizes the advances in robotics made by Muslim engineers, especially al-Jazari, as follows:. Unlike the Greek designs, these Arab examples reveal an interest, not only in dramatic illusion, but in manipulating the environment for human comfort.

Thus, the greatest contribution the Arabs made, besides preserving, disseminating and building on the work of the Greeks, was the concept of practical application.

This was the key element that was missing in Greek robotic science. In Renaissance Italy, Leonardo da Vinci — sketched plans for a humanoid robot around Da Vinci's notebooks, rediscovered in the s, contained detailed drawings of a mechanical knight now known as Leonardo's robot , able to sit up, wave its arms and move its head and jaw.

It is not known whether he attempted to build it. In Japan, complex animal and human automata were built between the 17th to 19th centuries, with many described in the 18th century Karakuri zui Illustrated Machinery , In France, between and , Jacques de Vaucanson exhibited several life-sized automatons: a flute player, a pipe player and a duck.

The mechanical duck could flap its wings, crane its neck, and swallow food from the exhibitor's hand, and it gave the illusion of digesting its food by excreting matter stored in a hidden compartment.

Remotely operated vehicles were demonstrated in the late 19th century in the form of several types of remotely controlled torpedoes. The early s saw remotely controlled torpedoes by John Ericsson pneumatic , John Louis Lay electric wire guided , and Victor von Scheliha electric wire guided.

The Brennan torpedo , invented by Louis Brennan in , was powered by two contra-rotating propellors that were spun by rapidly pulling out wires from drums wound inside the torpedo.

Differential speed on the wires connected to the shore station allowed the torpedo to be guided to its target, making it "the world's first practical guided missile".

Archibald Low , known as the "father of radio guidance systems" for his pioneering work on guided rockets and planes during the First World War.

In , he demonstrated a remote controlled aircraft to the Royal Flying Corps and in the same year built the first wire-guided rocket.

English pronunciation of the word has evolved relatively quickly since its introduction. In the U. In , one of the first humanoid robots, Eric , was exhibited at the annual exhibition of the Model Engineers Society in London , where it delivered a speech.

Invented by W. Richards, the robot's frame consisted of an aluminium body of armour with eleven electromagnets and one motor powered by a twelve-volt power source.

The robot could move its hands and head and could be controlled through remote control or voice control. Westinghouse Electric Corporation built Televox in ; it was a cardboard cutout connected to various devices which users could turn on and off.

The body consisted of a steel gear, cam and motor skeleton covered by an aluminum skin. In , Japan's first robot, Gakutensoku , was designed and constructed by biologist Makoto Nishimura.

The first electronic autonomous robots with complex behaviour were created by William Grey Walter of the Burden Neurological Institute at Bristol , England in and He wanted to prove that rich connections between a small number of brain cells could give rise to very complex behaviors — essentially that the secret of how the brain worked lay in how it was wired up.

His first robots, named Elmer and Elsie , were constructed between and and were often described as tortoises due to their shape and slow rate of movement.

The three-wheeled tortoise robots were capable of phototaxis , by which they could find their way to a recharging station when they ran low on battery power.

Walter stressed the importance of using purely analogue electronics to simulate brain processes at a time when his contemporaries such as Alan Turing and John von Neumann were all turning towards a view of mental processes in terms of digital computation.

His work inspired subsequent generations of robotics researchers such as Rodney Brooks , Hans Moravec and Mark Tilden. The first digitally operated and programmable robot was invented by George Devol in and was ultimately called the Unimate.

This ultimately laid the foundations of the modern robotics industry. The first palletizing robot was introduced in by the Fuji Yusoki Kogyo Company.

Commercial and industrial robots are now in widespread use performing jobs more cheaply or with greater accuracy and reliability than humans.

They are also employed for jobs which are too dirty, dangerous or dull to be suitable for humans. Robots are widely used in manufacturing, assembly and packing, transport, earth and space exploration, surgery, weaponry, laboratory research, and mass production of consumer and industrial goods.

Various techniques have emerged to develop the science of robotics and robots. One method is evolutionary robotics , in which a number of differing robots are submitted to tests.

Those which perform best are used as a model to create a subsequent "generation" of robots. Another method is developmental robotics , which tracks changes and development within a single robot in the areas of problem-solving and other functions.

Another new type of robot is just recently introduced which acts both as a smartphone and robot and is named RoboHon.

As robots become more advanced, eventually there may be a standard computer operating system designed mainly for robots.

Robot Operating System is an open-source set of programs being developed at Stanford University , the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the Technical University of Munich , Germany, among others.

ROS provides ways to program a robot's navigation and limbs regardless of the specific hardware involved. It also provides high-level commands for items like image recognition and even opening doors.

When ROS boots up on a robot's computer, it would obtain data on attributes such as the length and movement of robots' limbs. It would relay this data to higher-level algorithms.

Microsoft is also developing a "Windows for robots" system with its Robotics Developer Studio, which has been available since Japan hopes to have full-scale commercialization of service robots by Much technological research in Japan is led by Japanese government agencies, particularly the Trade Ministry.

Many future applications of robotics seem obvious to people, even though they are well beyond the capabilities of robots available at the time of the prediction.

Clean parts by removing molding flash 2. Spray paint automobiles with absolutely no human presence 3. Pack things in boxes—for example, orient and nest chocolate candies in candy boxes 4.

Make electrical cable harness 5. Load trucks with boxes—a packing problem 6. Handle soft goods, such as garments and shoes 7. Shear sheep 8.

Cook fast food and work in other service industries Household robot. In , Caterpillar Inc. In , these Caterpillar trucks were actively used in mining operations in Australia by the mining company Rio Tinto Coal Australia.

A literate or 'reading robot' named Marge has intelligence that comes from software. She can read newspapers, find and correct misspelled words, learn about banks like Barclays, and understand that some restaurants are better places to eat than others.

Baxter is a new robot introduced in which learns by guidance. A worker could teach Baxter how to perform a task by moving its hands in the desired motion and having Baxter memorize them.

Extra dials, buttons, and controls are available on Baxter's arm for more precision and features. Any regular worker could program Baxter and it only takes a matter of minutes, unlike usual industrial robots that take extensive programs and coding in order to be used.

This means Baxter needs no programming in order to operate. No software engineers are needed. This also means Baxter can be taught to perform multiple, more complicated tasks.

Sawyer was added in for smaller, more precise tasks. Rossum's Universal Robots , published in The play does not focus in detail on the technology behind the creation of these living creatures, but in their appearance they prefigure modern ideas of androids , creatures who can be mistaken for humans.

These mass-produced workers are depicted as efficient but emotionless, incapable of original thinking and indifferent to self-preservation.

At issue is whether the robots are being exploited and the consequences of human dependence upon commodified labor especially after a number of specially-formulated robots achieve self-awareness and incite robots all around the world to rise up against the humans.

However, he did not like the word, and sought advice from his brother Josef, who suggested "roboti". Robot is cognate with the German root Arbeit work.

The word robotics , used to describe this field of study, [5] was coined by the science fiction writer Isaac Asimov. Asimov created the " Three Laws of Robotics " which are a recurring theme in his books.

These have since been used by many others to define laws used in fiction. The three laws are pure fiction, and no technology yet created has the ability to understand or follow them, and in fact most robots serve military purposes, which run quite contrary to the first law and often the third law.

If you read the short stories, every single one is about a failure, and they are totally impractical," said Dr.

Joanna Bryson of the University of Bath. Mobile robots [83] have the capability to move around in their environment and are not fixed to one physical location.

An example of a mobile robot that is in common use today is the automated guided vehicle or automatic guided vehicle AGV. An AGV is a mobile robot that follows markers or wires in the floor, or uses vision or lasers.

Mobile robots are also found in industry, military and security environments. Mobile robots are the focus of a great deal of current research and almost every major university has one or more labs that focus on mobile robot research.

Mobile robots are usually used in tightly controlled environments such as on assembly lines because they have difficulty responding to unexpected interference.

Because of this most humans rarely encounter robots. However domestic robots for cleaning and maintenance are increasingly common in and around homes in developed countries.

Robots can also be found in military applications. Industrial robots usually consist of a jointed arm multi-linked manipulator and an end effector that is attached to a fixed surface.

One of the most common type of end effector is a gripper assembly. The International Organization for Standardization gives a definition of a manipulating industrial robot in ISO :.

Most commonly industrial robots are fixed robotic arms and manipulators used primarily for production and distribution of goods.

The term "service robot" is less well-defined. The International Federation of Robotics has proposed a tentative definition, "A service robot is a robot which operates semi- or fully autonomously to perform services useful to the well-being of humans and equipment, excluding manufacturing operations.

Robots are used as educational assistants to teachers. From the s, robots such as turtles were used in schools and programmed using the Logo language.

Robotics have also been introduced into the lives of elementary and high school students in the form of robot competitions with the company FIRST For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology.

There have also been robots such as the teaching computer, Leachim Modular robots are a new breed of robots that are designed to increase the utilization of robots by modularizing their architecture.

These robots are composed of a single type of identical, several different identical module types, or similarly shaped modules, which vary in size.

Their architectural structure allows hyper-redundancy for modular robots, as they can be designed with more than 8 degrees of freedom DOF.

Creating the programming, inverse kinematics and dynamics for modular robots is more complex than with traditional robots.

Modular robots may be composed of L-shaped modules, cubic modules, and U and H-shaped modules. These "ANAT robots" can be designed with "n" DOF as each module is a complete motorized robotic system that folds relatively to the modules connected before and after it in its chain, and therefore a single module allows one degree of freedom.

The more modules that are connected to one another, the more degrees of freedom it will have. L-shaped modules can also be designed in a chain, and must become increasingly smaller as the size of the chain increases, as payloads attached to the end of the chain place a greater strain on modules that are further from the base.

ANAT H-shaped modules do not suffer from this problem, as their design allows a modular robot to distribute pressure and impacts evenly amongst other attached modules, and therefore payload-carrying capacity does not decrease as the length of the arm increases.

Modular robots can be manually or self-reconfigured to form a different robot, that may perform different applications.

Because modular robots of the same architecture type are composed of modules that compose different modular robots, a snake-arm robot can combine with another to form a dual or quadra-arm robot, or can split into several mobile robots, and mobile robots can split into multiple smaller ones, or combine with others into a larger or different one.

This allows a single modular robot the ability to be fully specialized in a single task, as well as the capacity to be specialized to perform multiple different tasks.

Modular robotic technology is currently being applied in hybrid transportation, [96] industrial automation, [97] duct cleaning [98] and handling.

Many research centres and universities have also studied this technology, and have developed prototypes. A collaborative robot or cobot is a robot that can safely and effectively interact with human workers while performing simple industrial tasks.

However, end-effectors and other environmental conditions may create hazards, and as such risk assessments should be done before using any industrial motion-control application.

The collaborative robots most widely used in industries today are manufactured by Universal Robots in Denmark. Rethink Robotics —founded by Rodney Brooks , previously with iRobot —introduced Baxter in September ; as an industrial robot designed to safely interact with neighboring human workers, and be programmable for performing simple tasks.

Intended for sale to small businesses, they are promoted as the robotic analogue of the personal computer. As robots have become more advanced and sophisticated, experts and academics have increasingly explored the questions of what ethics might govern robots' behavior, [] and whether robots might be able to claim any kind of social, cultural, ethical or legal rights.

Vernor Vinge has suggested that a moment may come when computers and robots are smarter than humans. He calls this " the Singularity ".

In , experts attended a conference hosted by the Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence AAAI to discuss whether computers and robots might be able to acquire any autonomy, and how much these abilities might pose a threat or hazard.

They noted that some robots have acquired various forms of semi-autonomy, including being able to find power sources on their own and being able to independently choose targets to attack with weapons.

They also noted that some computer viruses can evade elimination and have achieved "cockroach intelligence. Researchers at the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute AI and Reasoning Lab in New York conducted an experiment where a robot became aware of itself, and corrected its answer to a question once it had realised this.

Some experts and academics have questioned the use of robots for military combat, especially when such robots are given some degree of autonomous functions.

However, other experts question this. One robot in particular, the EATR , has generated public concerns [] over its fuel source, as it can continually refuel itself using organic substances.

Manuel De Landa has noted that "smart missiles" and autonomous bombs equipped with artificial perception can be considered robots, as they make some of their decisions autonomously.

He believes this represents an important and dangerous trend in which humans are handing over important decisions to machines. For centuries, people have predicted that machines would make workers obsolete and increase unemployment , although the causes of unemployment are usually thought to be due to social policy.

A recent example of human replacement involves Taiwanese technology company Foxconn who, in July , announced a three-year plan to replace workers with more robots.

At present the company uses ten thousand robots but will increase them to a million robots over a three-year period. Lawyers have speculated that an increased prevalence of robots in the workplace could lead to the need to improve redundancy laws.

Kevin J. Delaney said "Robots are taking human jobs. The World Bank 's World Development Report puts forth evidence showing that while automation displaces workers, technological innovation creates more new industries and jobs on balance.

At present, there are two main types of robots, based on their use: general-purpose autonomous robots and dedicated robots. Robots can be classified by their specificity of purpose.

A robot might be designed to perform one particular task extremely well, or a range of tasks less well.

All robots by their nature can be re-programmed to behave differently, but some are limited by their physical form.

For example, a factory robot arm can perform jobs such as cutting, welding, gluing, or acting as a fairground ride, while a pick-and-place robot can only populate printed circuit boards.

General-purpose autonomous robots can perform a variety of functions independently. General-purpose autonomous robots typically can navigate independently in known spaces, handle their own re-charging needs, interface with electronic doors and elevators and perform other basic tasks.

Like computers, general-purpose robots can link with networks, software and accessories that increase their usefulness.

They may recognize people or objects, talk, provide companionship, monitor environmental quality, respond to alarms, pick up supplies and perform other useful tasks.

General-purpose robots may perform a variety of functions simultaneously or they may take on different roles at different times of day. Some such robots try to mimic human beings and may even resemble people in appearance; this type of robot is called a humanoid robot.

Humanoid robots are still in a very limited stage, as no humanoid robot can, as of yet, actually navigate around a room that it has never been in.

Over the last three decades, automobile factories have become dominated by robots. A typical factory contains hundreds of industrial robots working on fully automated production lines, with one robot for every ten human workers.

On an automated production line, a vehicle chassis on a conveyor is welded , glued , painted and finally assembled at a sequence of robot stations.

Industrial robots are also used extensively for palletizing and packaging of manufactured goods, for example for rapidly taking drink cartons from the end of a conveyor belt and placing them into boxes, or for loading and unloading machining centers.

Mass-produced printed circuit boards PCBs are almost exclusively manufactured by pick-and-place robots, typically with SCARA manipulators, which remove tiny electronic components from strips or trays, and place them on to PCBs with great accuracy.

Mobile robots, following markers or wires in the floor, or using vision [84] or lasers, are used to transport goods around large facilities, such as warehouses, container ports, or hospitals.

Limited to tasks that could be accurately defined and had to be performed the same way every time. Very little feedback or intelligence was required, and the robots needed only the most basic exteroceptors sensors.

The limitations of these AGVs are that their paths are not easily altered and they cannot alter their paths if obstacles block them.

If one AGV breaks down, it may stop the entire operation. Developed to deploy triangulation from beacons or bar code grids for scanning on the floor or ceiling.

In most factories, triangulation systems tend to require moderate to high maintenance, such as daily cleaning of all beacons or bar codes.

Also, if a tall pallet or large vehicle blocks beacons or a bar code is marred, AGVs may become lost. Often such AGVs are designed to be used in human-free environments.

They navigate by recognizing natural features. Some AGVs can create maps of their environment using scanning lasers with simultaneous localization and mapping SLAM and use those maps to navigate in real time with other path planning and obstacle avoidance algorithms.

They are able to operate in complex environments and perform non-repetitive and non-sequential tasks such as transporting photomasks in a semiconductor lab, specimens in hospitals and goods in warehouses.

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The drummer could be made to play different rhythms and different drum patterns by moving the pegs to different locations. Samarangana Sutradhara , a Sanskrit treatise by Bhoja 11th century , includes a chapter about the construction of mechanical contrivances automata , including mechanical bees and birds, fountains shaped like humans and animals, and male and female dolls that refilled oil lamps, danced, played instruments, and re-enacted scenes from Hindu mythology.

He built automated moving peacocks driven by hydropower. The drink was stored in a tank with a reservoir from where the drink drips into a bucket and, after seven minutes, into a cup, after which the waitress appears out of an automatic door serving the drink.

It features a female humanoid automaton standing by a basin filled with water. When the user pulls the lever, the water drains and the female automaton refills the basin.

Mark E. Rosheim summarizes the advances in robotics made by Muslim engineers, especially al-Jazari, as follows:.

Unlike the Greek designs, these Arab examples reveal an interest, not only in dramatic illusion, but in manipulating the environment for human comfort.

Thus, the greatest contribution the Arabs made, besides preserving, disseminating and building on the work of the Greeks, was the concept of practical application.

This was the key element that was missing in Greek robotic science. In Renaissance Italy, Leonardo da Vinci — sketched plans for a humanoid robot around Da Vinci's notebooks, rediscovered in the s, contained detailed drawings of a mechanical knight now known as Leonardo's robot , able to sit up, wave its arms and move its head and jaw.

It is not known whether he attempted to build it. In Japan, complex animal and human automata were built between the 17th to 19th centuries, with many described in the 18th century Karakuri zui Illustrated Machinery , In France, between and , Jacques de Vaucanson exhibited several life-sized automatons: a flute player, a pipe player and a duck.

The mechanical duck could flap its wings, crane its neck, and swallow food from the exhibitor's hand, and it gave the illusion of digesting its food by excreting matter stored in a hidden compartment.

Remotely operated vehicles were demonstrated in the late 19th century in the form of several types of remotely controlled torpedoes.

The early s saw remotely controlled torpedoes by John Ericsson pneumatic , John Louis Lay electric wire guided , and Victor von Scheliha electric wire guided.

The Brennan torpedo , invented by Louis Brennan in , was powered by two contra-rotating propellors that were spun by rapidly pulling out wires from drums wound inside the torpedo.

Differential speed on the wires connected to the shore station allowed the torpedo to be guided to its target, making it "the world's first practical guided missile".

Archibald Low , known as the "father of radio guidance systems" for his pioneering work on guided rockets and planes during the First World War.

In , he demonstrated a remote controlled aircraft to the Royal Flying Corps and in the same year built the first wire-guided rocket.

English pronunciation of the word has evolved relatively quickly since its introduction. In the U. In , one of the first humanoid robots, Eric , was exhibited at the annual exhibition of the Model Engineers Society in London , where it delivered a speech.

Invented by W. Richards, the robot's frame consisted of an aluminium body of armour with eleven electromagnets and one motor powered by a twelve-volt power source.

The robot could move its hands and head and could be controlled through remote control or voice control. Westinghouse Electric Corporation built Televox in ; it was a cardboard cutout connected to various devices which users could turn on and off.

The body consisted of a steel gear, cam and motor skeleton covered by an aluminum skin. In , Japan's first robot, Gakutensoku , was designed and constructed by biologist Makoto Nishimura.

The first electronic autonomous robots with complex behaviour were created by William Grey Walter of the Burden Neurological Institute at Bristol , England in and He wanted to prove that rich connections between a small number of brain cells could give rise to very complex behaviors — essentially that the secret of how the brain worked lay in how it was wired up.

His first robots, named Elmer and Elsie , were constructed between and and were often described as tortoises due to their shape and slow rate of movement.

The three-wheeled tortoise robots were capable of phototaxis , by which they could find their way to a recharging station when they ran low on battery power.

Walter stressed the importance of using purely analogue electronics to simulate brain processes at a time when his contemporaries such as Alan Turing and John von Neumann were all turning towards a view of mental processes in terms of digital computation.

His work inspired subsequent generations of robotics researchers such as Rodney Brooks , Hans Moravec and Mark Tilden.

The first digitally operated and programmable robot was invented by George Devol in and was ultimately called the Unimate. This ultimately laid the foundations of the modern robotics industry.

The first palletizing robot was introduced in by the Fuji Yusoki Kogyo Company. Commercial and industrial robots are now in widespread use performing jobs more cheaply or with greater accuracy and reliability than humans.

They are also employed for jobs which are too dirty, dangerous or dull to be suitable for humans. Robots are widely used in manufacturing, assembly and packing, transport, earth and space exploration, surgery, weaponry, laboratory research, and mass production of consumer and industrial goods.

Various techniques have emerged to develop the science of robotics and robots. One method is evolutionary robotics , in which a number of differing robots are submitted to tests.

Those which perform best are used as a model to create a subsequent "generation" of robots. Another method is developmental robotics , which tracks changes and development within a single robot in the areas of problem-solving and other functions.

Another new type of robot is just recently introduced which acts both as a smartphone and robot and is named RoboHon. As robots become more advanced, eventually there may be a standard computer operating system designed mainly for robots.

Robot Operating System is an open-source set of programs being developed at Stanford University , the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the Technical University of Munich , Germany, among others.

ROS provides ways to program a robot's navigation and limbs regardless of the specific hardware involved.

It also provides high-level commands for items like image recognition and even opening doors. When ROS boots up on a robot's computer, it would obtain data on attributes such as the length and movement of robots' limbs.

It would relay this data to higher-level algorithms. Microsoft is also developing a "Windows for robots" system with its Robotics Developer Studio, which has been available since Japan hopes to have full-scale commercialization of service robots by Much technological research in Japan is led by Japanese government agencies, particularly the Trade Ministry.

Many future applications of robotics seem obvious to people, even though they are well beyond the capabilities of robots available at the time of the prediction.

Clean parts by removing molding flash 2. Spray paint automobiles with absolutely no human presence 3.

Pack things in boxes—for example, orient and nest chocolate candies in candy boxes 4. Make electrical cable harness 5.

Load trucks with boxes—a packing problem 6. Handle soft goods, such as garments and shoes 7. Shear sheep 8.

Cook fast food and work in other service industries Household robot. In , Caterpillar Inc. In , these Caterpillar trucks were actively used in mining operations in Australia by the mining company Rio Tinto Coal Australia.

A literate or 'reading robot' named Marge has intelligence that comes from software. She can read newspapers, find and correct misspelled words, learn about banks like Barclays, and understand that some restaurants are better places to eat than others.

Baxter is a new robot introduced in which learns by guidance. A worker could teach Baxter how to perform a task by moving its hands in the desired motion and having Baxter memorize them.

Extra dials, buttons, and controls are available on Baxter's arm for more precision and features. Any regular worker could program Baxter and it only takes a matter of minutes, unlike usual industrial robots that take extensive programs and coding in order to be used.

This means Baxter needs no programming in order to operate. No software engineers are needed. This also means Baxter can be taught to perform multiple, more complicated tasks.

Sawyer was added in for smaller, more precise tasks. Rossum's Universal Robots , published in The play does not focus in detail on the technology behind the creation of these living creatures, but in their appearance they prefigure modern ideas of androids , creatures who can be mistaken for humans.

These mass-produced workers are depicted as efficient but emotionless, incapable of original thinking and indifferent to self-preservation.

At issue is whether the robots are being exploited and the consequences of human dependence upon commodified labor especially after a number of specially-formulated robots achieve self-awareness and incite robots all around the world to rise up against the humans.

However, he did not like the word, and sought advice from his brother Josef, who suggested "roboti". Robot is cognate with the German root Arbeit work.

The word robotics , used to describe this field of study, [5] was coined by the science fiction writer Isaac Asimov. Asimov created the " Three Laws of Robotics " which are a recurring theme in his books.

These have since been used by many others to define laws used in fiction. The three laws are pure fiction, and no technology yet created has the ability to understand or follow them, and in fact most robots serve military purposes, which run quite contrary to the first law and often the third law.

If you read the short stories, every single one is about a failure, and they are totally impractical," said Dr. Joanna Bryson of the University of Bath.

Mobile robots [83] have the capability to move around in their environment and are not fixed to one physical location. An example of a mobile robot that is in common use today is the automated guided vehicle or automatic guided vehicle AGV.

An AGV is a mobile robot that follows markers or wires in the floor, or uses vision or lasers. Mobile robots are also found in industry, military and security environments.

Mobile robots are the focus of a great deal of current research and almost every major university has one or more labs that focus on mobile robot research.

Mobile robots are usually used in tightly controlled environments such as on assembly lines because they have difficulty responding to unexpected interference.

Because of this most humans rarely encounter robots. However domestic robots for cleaning and maintenance are increasingly common in and around homes in developed countries.

Robots can also be found in military applications. Industrial robots usually consist of a jointed arm multi-linked manipulator and an end effector that is attached to a fixed surface.

One of the most common type of end effector is a gripper assembly. The International Organization for Standardization gives a definition of a manipulating industrial robot in ISO :.

Most commonly industrial robots are fixed robotic arms and manipulators used primarily for production and distribution of goods.

The term "service robot" is less well-defined. The International Federation of Robotics has proposed a tentative definition, "A service robot is a robot which operates semi- or fully autonomously to perform services useful to the well-being of humans and equipment, excluding manufacturing operations.

Robots are used as educational assistants to teachers. From the s, robots such as turtles were used in schools and programmed using the Logo language.

Robotics have also been introduced into the lives of elementary and high school students in the form of robot competitions with the company FIRST For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology.

There have also been robots such as the teaching computer, Leachim Modular robots are a new breed of robots that are designed to increase the utilization of robots by modularizing their architecture.

These robots are composed of a single type of identical, several different identical module types, or similarly shaped modules, which vary in size.

Their architectural structure allows hyper-redundancy for modular robots, as they can be designed with more than 8 degrees of freedom DOF. Creating the programming, inverse kinematics and dynamics for modular robots is more complex than with traditional robots.

Modular robots may be composed of L-shaped modules, cubic modules, and U and H-shaped modules. These "ANAT robots" can be designed with "n" DOF as each module is a complete motorized robotic system that folds relatively to the modules connected before and after it in its chain, and therefore a single module allows one degree of freedom.

The more modules that are connected to one another, the more degrees of freedom it will have. L-shaped modules can also be designed in a chain, and must become increasingly smaller as the size of the chain increases, as payloads attached to the end of the chain place a greater strain on modules that are further from the base.

ANAT H-shaped modules do not suffer from this problem, as their design allows a modular robot to distribute pressure and impacts evenly amongst other attached modules, and therefore payload-carrying capacity does not decrease as the length of the arm increases.

Modular robots can be manually or self-reconfigured to form a different robot, that may perform different applications.

Because modular robots of the same architecture type are composed of modules that compose different modular robots, a snake-arm robot can combine with another to form a dual or quadra-arm robot, or can split into several mobile robots, and mobile robots can split into multiple smaller ones, or combine with others into a larger or different one.

This allows a single modular robot the ability to be fully specialized in a single task, as well as the capacity to be specialized to perform multiple different tasks.

Modular robotic technology is currently being applied in hybrid transportation, [96] industrial automation, [97] duct cleaning [98] and handling.

Many research centres and universities have also studied this technology, and have developed prototypes. A collaborative robot or cobot is a robot that can safely and effectively interact with human workers while performing simple industrial tasks.

However, end-effectors and other environmental conditions may create hazards, and as such risk assessments should be done before using any industrial motion-control application.

The collaborative robots most widely used in industries today are manufactured by Universal Robots in Denmark.

Rethink Robotics —founded by Rodney Brooks , previously with iRobot —introduced Baxter in September ; as an industrial robot designed to safely interact with neighboring human workers, and be programmable for performing simple tasks.

Intended for sale to small businesses, they are promoted as the robotic analogue of the personal computer.

As robots have become more advanced and sophisticated, experts and academics have increasingly explored the questions of what ethics might govern robots' behavior, [] and whether robots might be able to claim any kind of social, cultural, ethical or legal rights.

Vernor Vinge has suggested that a moment may come when computers and robots are smarter than humans. He calls this " the Singularity ".

In , experts attended a conference hosted by the Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence AAAI to discuss whether computers and robots might be able to acquire any autonomy, and how much these abilities might pose a threat or hazard.

They noted that some robots have acquired various forms of semi-autonomy, including being able to find power sources on their own and being able to independently choose targets to attack with weapons.

They also noted that some computer viruses can evade elimination and have achieved "cockroach intelligence. Researchers at the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute AI and Reasoning Lab in New York conducted an experiment where a robot became aware of itself, and corrected its answer to a question once it had realised this.

Some experts and academics have questioned the use of robots for military combat, especially when such robots are given some degree of autonomous functions.

However, other experts question this. One robot in particular, the EATR , has generated public concerns [] over its fuel source, as it can continually refuel itself using organic substances.

Manuel De Landa has noted that "smart missiles" and autonomous bombs equipped with artificial perception can be considered robots, as they make some of their decisions autonomously.

He believes this represents an important and dangerous trend in which humans are handing over important decisions to machines. For centuries, people have predicted that machines would make workers obsolete and increase unemployment , although the causes of unemployment are usually thought to be due to social policy.

A recent example of human replacement involves Taiwanese technology company Foxconn who, in July , announced a three-year plan to replace workers with more robots.

At present the company uses ten thousand robots but will increase them to a million robots over a three-year period.

Lawyers have speculated that an increased prevalence of robots in the workplace could lead to the need to improve redundancy laws. Kevin J. Delaney said "Robots are taking human jobs.

The World Bank 's World Development Report puts forth evidence showing that while automation displaces workers, technological innovation creates more new industries and jobs on balance.

At present, there are two main types of robots, based on their use: general-purpose autonomous robots and dedicated robots. Robots can be classified by their specificity of purpose.

A robot might be designed to perform one particular task extremely well, or a range of tasks less well.

All robots by their nature can be re-programmed to behave differently, but some are limited by their physical form. For example, a factory robot arm can perform jobs such as cutting, welding, gluing, or acting as a fairground ride, while a pick-and-place robot can only populate printed circuit boards.

General-purpose autonomous robots can perform a variety of functions independently. General-purpose autonomous robots typically can navigate independently in known spaces, handle their own re-charging needs, interface with electronic doors and elevators and perform other basic tasks.

Like computers, general-purpose robots can link with networks, software and accessories that increase their usefulness. They may recognize people or objects, talk, provide companionship, monitor environmental quality, respond to alarms, pick up supplies and perform other useful tasks.

General-purpose robots may perform a variety of functions simultaneously or they may take on different roles at different times of day.

Some such robots try to mimic human beings and may even resemble people in appearance; this type of robot is called a humanoid robot.

Humanoid robots are still in a very limited stage, as no humanoid robot can, as of yet, actually navigate around a room that it has never been in.

Over the last three decades, automobile factories have become dominated by robots. A typical factory contains hundreds of industrial robots working on fully automated production lines, with one robot for every ten human workers.

On an automated production line, a vehicle chassis on a conveyor is welded , glued , painted and finally assembled at a sequence of robot stations.

Industrial robots are also used extensively for palletizing and packaging of manufactured goods, for example for rapidly taking drink cartons from the end of a conveyor belt and placing them into boxes, or for loading and unloading machining centers.

Mass-produced printed circuit boards PCBs are almost exclusively manufactured by pick-and-place robots, typically with SCARA manipulators, which remove tiny electronic components from strips or trays, and place them on to PCBs with great accuracy.

Mobile robots, following markers or wires in the floor, or using vision [84] or lasers, are used to transport goods around large facilities, such as warehouses, container ports, or hospitals.

Limited to tasks that could be accurately defined and had to be performed the same way every time. Very little feedback or intelligence was required, and the robots needed only the most basic exteroceptors sensors.

The limitations of these AGVs are that their paths are not easily altered and they cannot alter their paths if obstacles block them.

If one AGV breaks down, it may stop the entire operation. Developed to deploy triangulation from beacons or bar code grids for scanning on the floor or ceiling.

In most factories, triangulation systems tend to require moderate to high maintenance, such as daily cleaning of all beacons or bar codes.

Also, if a tall pallet or large vehicle blocks beacons or a bar code is marred, AGVs may become lost. Often such AGVs are designed to be used in human-free environments.

They navigate by recognizing natural features. Some AGVs can create maps of their environment using scanning lasers with simultaneous localization and mapping SLAM and use those maps to navigate in real time with other path planning and obstacle avoidance algorithms.

They are able to operate in complex environments and perform non-repetitive and non-sequential tasks such as transporting photomasks in a semiconductor lab, specimens in hospitals and goods in warehouses.

For dynamic areas, such as warehouses full of pallets, AGVs require additional strategies using three-dimensional sensors such as time-of-flight or stereovision cameras.

There are many jobs which humans would rather leave to robots. The job may be boring, such as domestic cleaning or sports field line marking , or dangerous, such as exploring inside a volcano.

Almost every unmanned space probe ever launched was a robot. This includes the Voyager probes and the Galileo probes, among others.

Teleoperated robots , or telerobots, are devices remotely operated from a distance by a human operator rather than following a predetermined sequence of movements, but which has semi-autonomous behaviour.

They are used when a human cannot be present on site to perform a job because it is dangerous, far away, or inaccessible.

The robot may be in another room or another country, or may be on a very different scale to the operator. For instance, a laparoscopic surgery robot allows the surgeon to work inside a human patient on a relatively small scale compared to open surgery, significantly shortening recovery time.

When disabling a bomb, the operator sends a small robot to disable it. Several authors have been using a device called the Longpen to sign books remotely.

These pilotless drones can search terrain and fire on targets. Robots are used to automate picking fruit on orchards at a cost lower than that of human pickers.

Domestic robots are simple robots dedicated to a single task work in home use. They are used in simple but often disliked jobs, such as vacuum cleaning , floor washing , and lawn mowing.

An example of a domestic robot is a Roomba. It can use a variety of weapons and there is some discussion of giving it some degree of autonomy in battleground situations.

UCAVs are being designed such as the BAE Systems Mantis which would have the ability to fly themselves, to pick their own course and target, and to make most decisions on their own.

The AAAI has studied this topic in depth [] and its president has commissioned a study to look at this issue.

Some have suggested a need to build " Friendly AI ", meaning that the advances which are already occurring with AI should also include an effort to make AI intrinsically friendly and humane.

Mining robots are designed to solve a number of problems currently facing the mining industry, including skills shortages, improving productivity from declining ore grades, and achieving environmental targets.

Due to the hazardous nature of mining, in particular underground mining , the prevalence of autonomous, semi-autonomous, and tele-operated robots has greatly increased in recent times.

A number of vehicle manufacturers provide autonomous trains, trucks and loaders that will load material, transport it on the mine site to its destination, and unload without requiring human intervention.

One of the world's largest mining corporations, Rio Tinto , has recently expanded its autonomous truck fleet to the world's largest, consisting of autonomous Komatsu trucks, operating in Western Australia.

Drilling, longwall and rockbreaking machines are now also available as autonomous robots. Robots in healthcare have two main functions. Those which assist an individual, such as a sufferer of a disease like Multiple Sclerosis, and those which aid in the overall systems such as pharmacies and hospitals.

Robots used in home automation have developed over time from simple basic robotic assistants, such as the Handy 1 , [] through to semi-autonomous robots, such as FRIEND which can assist the elderly and disabled with common tasks.

The population is aging in many countries, especially Japan, meaning that there are increasing numbers of elderly people to care for, but relatively fewer young people to care for them.

FRIEND is a semi-autonomous robot designed to support disabled and elderly people in their daily life activities, like preparing and serving a meal.

FRIEND make it possible for patients who are paraplegic , have muscle diseases or serious paralysis due to strokes etc. Script Pro manufactures a robot designed to help pharmacies fill prescriptions that consist of oral solids or medications in pill form.

The system, upon determining whether or not the drug is in the robot, will send the information to the robot for filling. The robot has 3 different size vials to fill determined by the size of the pill.

The robot technician, user, or pharmacist determines the needed size of the vial based on the tablet when the robot is stocked.

Once the vial is filled it is brought up to a conveyor belt that delivers it to a holder that spins the vial and attaches the patient label.

Afterwards it is set on another conveyor that delivers the patient's medication vial to a slot labeled with the patient's name on an LED read out.

The pharmacist or technician then checks the contents of the vial to ensure it's the correct drug for the correct patient and then seals the vials and sends it out front to be picked up.

McKesson's Robot RX is another healthcare robotics product that helps pharmacies dispense thousands of medications daily with little or no errors.

The pharmacy saves many resources like staff members that are otherwise unavailable in a resource scarce industry.

It uses an electromechanical head coupled with a pneumatic system to capture each dose and deliver it to its either stocked or dispensed location.

The head moves along a single axis while it rotates degrees to pull the medications. During this process it uses barcode technology to verify its pulling the correct drug.

It then delivers the drug to a patient specific bin on a conveyor belt. Once the bin is filled with all of the drugs that a particular patient needs and that the robot stocks, the bin is then released and returned out on the conveyor belt to a technician waiting to load it into a cart for delivery to the floor.

While most robots today are installed in factories or homes, performing labour or life saving jobs, many new types of robot are being developed in laboratories around the world.

Much of the research in robotics focuses not on specific industrial tasks, but on investigations into new types of robot, alternative ways to think about or design robots, and new ways to manufacture them.

It is expected that these new types of robot will be able to solve real world problems when they are finally realized.

One approach to designing robots is to base them on animals. BionicKangaroo was designed and engineered by studying and applying the physiology and methods of locomotion of a kangaroo.

Also known as "nanobots" or "nanites", they would be constructed from molecular machines. So far, researchers have mostly produced only parts of these complex systems, such as bearings, sensors, and synthetic molecular motors , but functioning robots have also been made such as the entrants to the Nanobot Robocup contest.

Possible applications include micro surgery on the level of individual cells , utility fog , [] manufacturing, weaponry and cleaning.

A few researchers have investigated the possibility of creating robots which can alter their physical form to suit a particular task, [] like the fictional T Real robots are nowhere near that sophisticated however, and mostly consist of a small number of cube shaped units, which can move relative to their neighbours.

Algorithms have been designed in case any such robots become a reality. In July scientists reported the development of a mobile robot chemist and demonstrate that it can assist in experimental searches.

According to the scientists their strategy was automating the researcher rather than the instruments — freeing up time for the human researchers to think creatively — and could identify photocatalyst mixtures for hydrogen production from water that were six times more active than initial formulations.

The modular robot can operate laboratory instruments, work nearly around the clock, and autonomously make decisions on his next actions depending on experimental results.

Robots with silicone bodies and flexible actuators air muscles , electroactive polymers , and ferrofluids look and feel different from robots with rigid skeletons, and can have different behaviors.

Inspired by colonies of insects such as ants and bees , researchers are modeling the behavior of swarms of thousands of tiny robots which together perform a useful task, such as finding something hidden, cleaning, or spying.

Each robot is quite simple, but the emergent behavior of the swarm is more complex. The whole set of robots can be considered as one single distributed system, in the same way an ant colony can be considered a superorganism , exhibiting swarm intelligence.

Whereas one large robot may fail and ruin a mission, a swarm can continue even if several robots fail. This could make them attractive for space exploration missions, where failure is normally extremely costly.

Robotics also has application in the design of virtual reality interfaces. Specialized robots are in widespread use in the haptic research community.

These robots, called "haptic interfaces", allow touch-enabled user interaction with real and virtual environments. Robotic forces allow simulating the mechanical properties of "virtual" objects, which users can experience through their sense of touch.

Robots are used by contemporary artists to create works that include mechanical automation. There are many branches of robotic art, one of which is robotic installation art , a type of installation art that is programmed to respond to viewer interactions, by means of computers, sensors and actuators.

The future behavior of such installations can therefore be altered by input from either the artist or the participant, which differentiates these artworks from other types of kinetic art.

The first reference in Western literature to mechanical servants appears in Homer 's Iliad. They looked like real women and could not only speak and use their limbs but were endowed with intelligence and trained in handwork by the immortal gods.

Rossum's Universal Robots written in ". Possibly the most prolific author of the twentieth century was Isaac Asimov — [] who published over five-hundred books.

Later, Asimov added the Zeroth Law: "A robot may not harm humanity, or, by inaction, allow humanity to come to harm"; the rest of the laws are modified sequentially to acknowledge this.

Asimov was not initially aware of this; he assumed the word already existed by analogy with mechanics, hydraulics, and other similar terms denoting branches of applied knowledge.

Robots appear in many films. Most of the robots in cinema are fictional. The reality is that robots can come in many different shapes and sizes.

What a robot looks like depends on its purpose. Flying robots might look like helicopters, or have wings like insects or birds.

Cleaning robots often look like little vacuums. Robots that are meant to interact with people often have a face, eyes, or a mouth—just like we do!

Whether they look like us or not, most robots have three essential ingredients that make them a robot: sensors, actuators, and programs. Together, these ingredients are what make a robot different from other electronics and gadget s you might have around your house, like your computer , your washing machine, or your toaster.

First, a robot has sensor s that allow it to perceive the world. The kinds of sensors that a robot needs depends on what the robot was made for.

A robot vacuum cleaner might use a bumper with pressure sensors to understand where a wall is. A flying robot uses a group of sensors called an inertial measurement unit IMU to help it stay balanced when it flies.

Some of the sensors used by robots are very different from the kinds of sensors used by people. Second, a robot has actuators that allow it to move around.

We might use our legs and feet to walk and run, and we might use our hands to pick up an orange and peel it. A robot might use actuators such as motors and wheels to drive places, and finger-like grippers to grab objects and manipulate them or turn them around.

Third, a robot needs a program that lets it act on its own based on what it is sensing. Can you think of anything that has autonomy? People have autonomy, because they can decide for themselves how to behave or move—at least most of the time!

But what if we want to build a robot that can autonomously dance to a beat? What three basic things would we need? We would need a microphone sound sensor so that the robot could hear the music.

We would need some actuators like motors with wheels so that the robot could move. The video above shows a simple robot that has been programmed to dance autonomously when it hears music.

Check out those dance moves! Some robots are more advanced than our little dancing robot. Autonomous cars, for example, have advanced sensors that allow them to measure the distance to all objects in their environment and build a 3-dimensional 3-D map of the area.

They then have an advanced program that understands the meaning of the cars, roads, and obstacle s in the 3D map. Other robots are being designed to help at home, explore space, or improve our efficiency at work.

Whatever their purpose, each robot will need a carefully thought-out set of sensors, actuators, and programs. How can they interact with humans in a natural way?

How do they adapt to the real world, which is often full of unexpected events that are hard for machines to understand?

These are the kinds of questions that robotics experts are working hard to solve. Robots come in many different shapes and sizes.

Whether they look like us or not, most robots have three essential ingredients that make them a robot.

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